shattercane. Sorghum spread throughout Africa, and along the way, adapted to a wide range of environments from the highlands of Ethiopia to the semi-arid Sahel. A subspecies of sorghum, shattercane (Sorghum bicolor ssp. drummondii) is derived from a hybrid event, and has been collected only in Massachusetts. Sorghum, with large juicy stems containing as much as 10% sucrose, used in manufacture of syrup; sugar can be manufactured from sorghum. From: Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses, 2019, D. Balakrishna, ... B. Venkatesh Bhat, in Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses, 2019. The use of representative subsets, such as minicore collection, is helping researchers find new genetic variations associated with agronomically beneficial traits for use in breeding and genomics research of sorghum (Upadhyaya et al., 2014a). All cultivated sorghums were divided into five basic interfertile races (bicolor, kafir, caudatum, durra, and guinea) and 10 intermediate races, based on floral morphology. Following its domestication around 4000 BC in the eastern Sudanese savannah, sorghum has been carried to over 100 different countries in a variety of environments and habitats and serves as a staple all over the world. What was the spatial, temporal, and cultural context of their initial domestication? Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is indigenous to Africa and is a member of the grass family Poaceae and has high morphological variations … W.L. Botanists, evolutionists, and archeologists alike have long debated the origins and domestication of cultivated sorghum. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Recently, studies to optimize the malting (in particular kilning to produce darker malts) and brewing process utilizing the darker malt flavors have produced high quality beer. J. African Hist.3: 229–233. bicolor contains all the cultivated sorghums. Within this context, overall grain quality is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The Origin and Domestication of Sorghum bicolor J. M. J. Questions regarding the time and place of its origin and domestication have been long deliberated on and debated. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is the world's fifth most important cereal after maize, rice, wheat, and barley. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081018798000073, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081018798000024, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128000182000182, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123864796000056, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128020005000058, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123944375001984, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081005293000013, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123849472006371, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123738912000560, Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses, 2019, Tissue Culture and Genetic Transformation in Sorghum bicolor, D. Balakrishna, ... B. Venkatesh Bhat, in, Origin, Domestication and Diffusion of Sorghum bicolor, Safe African Medicinal Plants for Clinical Studies, Theophine Chinwuba Okoye, ... Emeka K. Okereke, in, Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants, Biosynthesis of Vitamins in Plants Part A, Abby J. Cuttriss, ... Barry J. Pogson, in, Genetic and Genomic Resources for Grain Cereals Improvement, THE PRODUCTION AND GENETICS OF FOOD GRAINS, Encyclopedia of Food Grains (Second Edition), Introduction to cereals and pseudocereals and their production, Kent's Technology of Cereals (Fifth Edition), www.nap.edu/catalog/2305/lost-crops-of-africa-volume-i-grains. Beer has been produced from sorghum in many African countries for decades, either because there was no other grain source available or through preference. Anthropological evidence suggests that hunter-gatherers were exceedingly familiar with wild forms of sorghum as early as 8000 BC (Smith and Frederiksen, 2000). Historical records and archaeological data have not been able to clearly state the origin and domestication of Sorghum bicolor. Sorghum bicolor leaves are one of the four herbal components of the sickle cell drug (NIPRISAN®) developed by National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Abuja, Nigeria [104] and is also one of the three components of Jubi Formular®, a commercial herbal hematinic manufactured by Health Forever Products Ltd., Lagos, Nigeria [105]. De Wet et al. Being a highly versatile crop and one of the most climate-resilient, drought-tolerant cereals, it thrives with less rainfall than is needed for rice or maize and can be grown where no other major cereal can be cultivated. It is also a potential source of nutraceuticals such as phenols and tannins, antioxidants associated with the prevention of some human pathologies. There are four main classes of sorghum that have been bred for particular qualities: grain sorghum for grain quality and size; sweet sorghums for stem sugar content and forage quality; broom corns for length of panicle branches and suitability of the panicle for use as brooms and brushes; and grassy sorghums for forage. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Kurt A. Rosentrater, A.D. Evers, in Kent's Technology of Cereals (Fifth Edition), 2018. When did agriculture become a major alternative to hunting-gathering? As a grain, sorghum is used as a both a food and feed crop primarily based on its historical use in each production region. Only section Sorghum seems to have con- The other three races include arundinaceum, a forest grass, aethiopicum, found in the Kassala region of Sudan and sparsely along the fringes of the Sahara, and virgatum, a small grass of the floodplains of the Nile. What wild species and populations were ancestral to specific crops? Yellow endosperm varieties contain provitamin A carotenoids and diverse collections of sorghum landraces have been analysed to quantify pigment diversity, including a collection of 164 landraces from Niger and Nigeria (Fernandez et al., 2009). Many economically important traits, viz. Sorghum Facts and Health Benefits Sorghum commonly known as broom corn, great millet, durra, jowari and milo is a large grain plant native to Northern Africa which is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions these days. bicolor' refers to all wild, weedy, and cultivated forms of Sorghum bicolor.The focus of this document is domesticated sorghum, however Sudan grass, sorghum × Sudan grass hybrids, and other cultivated sorghums are also considered. Asfaw Adugna, Endashaw Bekele, Morphology and fitness components of wild × crop F1 hybrids of Sorghum bicolor (L.) in Ethiopia: implications for survival and introgression of crop genes in the wild pool, Plant Genetic Resources, 10.1017/S1479262113000129, 11, 03, (196-205), (2013). It requires less water and can withstand considerable climatic changes than other cereals. Sorghum-Sudangrass Hybrids and Sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor) Origin: Northeast Africa. However, for sorghum the structure of the storage proteins differs somewhat to barley and wheat in that sorghum has lower levels of proline and there are no reported toxic protein sequences. Sorghum bicolor subsp. SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor L.) VERNACULAR NAMES Juar (Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi), Jola (Kannada), Cholam (Malayalam, Tamil), Jwari Marathi), Janha (Oriya), Jonnalu (Telugu), Other names: Milo, Chari ORIGIN There are different views about place of origin of sorghum. Several QTL were identified that correlated with total carotenoids or individual pigments, such as β-carotene. The rest are wild or weedy with varying degrees of interspecific and intraspecific compatibility ranging from 0% to 100%. Alternative uses include beer, alcohol, and syrup production. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. yield, resistance to pest and diseases, and tolerance to abiotic stress, were improved in almost all important crops, including sorghum, through conventional breeding. White food-grade sorghum flour contains about 10% protein and about 3.3% fat (for most unsaturated fats), higher than that of wheat. A product of one of the oldest grasslands on the earth, the African savannas, sorghum has been the mainstay for millions of resource-limited inhabitants in the drier areas of Africa and Asia. Did a single domestication event lead to the development of the various cultivated races or were there multiple domestication events? drummondii.'S. P. Pontieri, L. Del Giudice, in Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 2016. HISTORY OF SORGHUM. It spread to India by 4000 years ago and later to China and to southern Africa by about 1500 years ago. To prevent crossing of cultivated sorghums with Johnsongrass use Deciphering genetic code was a great leap in development of transgenics using the alien gene from unrelated genera or even kingdom. Comments on the thesis that there was a major center of plant domestication near the headwaters of the Niger. DE WET AND J. P. HUCKABAY Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater2 Received August 1, 1966 The complex species Sorghum bicolor (Linn.) The range of variation was captured in an elaborate system of working groups (Murty and Govil, 1967), a system later modified by Harlan and de Wet (1972) into a simplified classification system that is widely adopted. Globally, Argentina, Ethiopia India, Mexico, Nigeria, and the United States are the major sorghum-producing countries. Google Scholar Theophine Chinwuba Okoye, ... Emeka K. Okereke, in Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants, 2014. Description: Annual. • SORGHUM BICOLOR (noun) The noun SORGHUM BICOLOR has 1 sense:. Sorghum bicolor . The earliest known record of sorghum comes from an archeological dig at Nabta Playa, near the Egyptian-Sudanese border, dated 8,000 B.C. The seeds of broomcorn are borne on the ends of long straight branches. Sorghum is an ancient crop of African origin and especially important in the semiarid tropics of Africa and South Asia, with significant production also in China, Southeast Asia, and the Americas. 1. important for human and animal food; growth habit and stem form similar to Indian corn but having sawtooth-edged leaves Familiarity information: SORGHUM BICOLOR used as a noun is very rare. Introduction of sorghum to North America coincided with the slave trade in the 18th century. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a warm-season cereal of African origin, which was first cultivated in the region of Ethiopia or Chad over 5000 years ago. Warth (1937) was of the opinion that it was originated in India and Africa. The centre of origin for sorghum seems to be the northeastern quadrant of Africa (Doggett, 1988) and it has spread to other parts of the world Which of these gave rise to cultivated sorghum or did all contribute in some measure? The focus of this species page is on Sorghum bicolor ssp. Major Uses: Pasture, hay, silage. Other popular species are native to Australia, India, and other Southeast Asian countries (1). However, sorghum is not immune to abiotic and biotic stresses but has potential to yield under unexpected weather conditions. Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae, which includes about 25 species.Some of these species have grown as cereals for human consumption and some in pastures for animals. S. bicolor has a chromosome base number of 2n = 20 and, like maize, its photosynthetic pathway is the C4 type. The more frequent (Sorghum bicolor ssp. II. Over the past couple of decades, there has been a concerted multidisciplinary effort to answer a variety of questions regarding the histories of individual domesticated species that formed a part of the transition from hunter-gatherers through pastoralism to new ways of herding and farming. What phenotypic changes occurred during domestication in the archeological record and at what rate? Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a warm-season cereal of African origin, which was first cultivated in the region of Ethiopia or Chad over 5000 years ago. Sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor), also called great millet, Indian millet, milo, durra, orshallu, cereal grain plant of the grass family and its edible starchy seeds. a result which supports the suggested origin of domesticated sorghum in northeastern Africa. Ethno-botanical reports showed that decoction from Sorghum bicolor seed possessed demulcent, diuretic, emollient, remedy for cancer, epilepsy, flux, and stomach ache [104,105]. However, compared to barley or wheat beers, sorghum beers have been historically lower in quality. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-101879-8.00002-4. It is the member of the grass family Poaceae or Gramineae. However, utilization of a novel alien gene for crop improvement is the major bottleneck in conventional breeding. THE ORIGIN OF SORGHUM BICOLOR. chicken corn. bicolor, or grain sorghum. bicolor. Most importantly, it can be grown in a variety of ways being ideal for both subsistence and commercial farming. Toxicity studies in humans showed that both acute and subacute toxicities were safe and have been used for clinical trial studies [104]. Sorghum bicolor is an annual plant having its different parts widely used in TM. Sorghum bicolor is a major staple crop grown in semiarid regions due to its drought tolerance, which makes it a good candidate for biofortification. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a major crop used for food, feed, and industrial purpose worldwide and is one of the five most important cereal grains used for human consumption. 'Sudan grass' and 'shattercane' both refer to S. bicolor subsp. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Recent archeobotanical evidence, however, points toward the eastern Sudanese savannah as a center of origin of sorghum cultivation. Sorghum bicolor subsp. Kamala Venkateswaran, ... N. Sivaraj, in Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses, 2019. Originating in Africa, they have since been introduced to various tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. These four wild races are classified under S. bicolor subsp. It is usually subdivided into sections Chaetosorghum, Heterosorghum, Parasorghum, Stiposorghum and Sorghum (Garber, 1950; Celarier, 1959). Why were some species more amenable to domestication and others not? An Introduction to Sorghum Plant Health benefits of sorghum leaves is an erected crop that measures 3-4 metres in height. DE WET AND J. R. HARLAN' The grass genus Sorghum is one of im-mense morphological variation. The other subspecies (S. bicolor ssp. Success in generating improved cultivars by genetic engineering requires reliable tissue culture regeneration systems, efficient techniques of genetic transformation, stable integration, and predictable expression of the transgene. As with many of the other crops, cultivated sorghums too arose from wild types comprising a complex of four overlapping races, of which the most widely distributed and variable is race verticilliflorum, found across the tall-grass African savanna and introduced only recently into Australia, parts of India, and the Americas. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is an important grain, forage, and bioenergy crop grown throughout the world. bicolor) is derived from the cultivated strain, and is found in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Vermont. The earliest known record of sorghum comes from an archeological dig at Nabta Playa, near the Egyptian-Sudanese border, dated 8,000 B.C. There are many species of sorghum, the most popular being Sorghum bicolor, which is native to Africa. It is rich in carbohydrates, contains micronutrients, and is rich in insoluble fiber. Difficult to make hay because of thick stems. Glen P. Fox, in Beer in Health and Disease Prevention, 2009. Moench.) Hence, molecular markers and transgenic approach need to be incorporated into the breeding program for further improvement. Sorghum is a genomic resource-rich crop and its increasing use will guide breeders to develop targeted populations/cultivars with specific adaptation. Broomcorn used for making brooms. These variations may be partly attributed to the widespread coexistence with its wild relatives in the center of origin. Questions regarding the time and place of its origin and domestication have been long deliberated on and debated. Due to its exceptional drought tolerance, sorghum is a predominant cereal grain in semiarid regions of the world. Moench (Gramineae) includes all cultivated sorghums as well as a group of A strong QTL that accounted for between 11% and 15% of phenotypic variation was associated with PSY3, thus pinpointing a focal point for breeding high-provitamin A sorghums (Fernandez et al., 2008). (1970) described the various groups of cultivated sorghum and identified their historical geographic distribution. The origin and early domestication of sorghum took place in northeastern Africa. Previously 571 cultivars were recognized. However, a number of biotic and abiotic factors are limiting grain yield increase. Rooney, in Encyclopedia of Food Grains (Second Edition), 2016. Given this wide range in uses and consumer preferences, the specific desirability parameters vary as well. The origin and early domestication of sorghum took place in Northeastern Africa. The leaves are broad and coarse, with dimensions measuring 5 cm and 0.75 m in breadth and length respectively. The earliest evidence of wild sorghums comes from hunter-gatherers in the Sahara dating to about 8000 BC, but the earliest known domesticated sorghum until now dated to 2000–1700 BC was reported from Late Harappan India where it is not a native crop. Sorghum bicolor subsp. Baker, H. G. 1962. The variation is also reflected in seed size. As it is gluten-free, it is also suitable for celiac patients. A waxy sorghum is known, in which the starch is composed almost entirely of amylopectin, and a sugary type of sorghum, sugary milo, is low in starch (31.5%) but contains 28.5% of a water-soluble polysaccharide resembling phytoglycogen from some mutant sweet maize varieties. Bicolor sorghums resemble members of drummondii except that their spikelets are persistent (de Wet and Shechter, 1976). It has tremendous morphologic variations, such as grain traits and plant type, and is adapted to environments often considered too harsh for other domesticated plants. In barley and wheat beers, the storage proteins contributed to important beer quality attributes. Piper. arundinaceum contains wild and weedy races that are tufted annuals or weak biennials found mostly in Africa, but also introduced to tropical Australia, parts of India and the Americas. In this document, 'domesticated sorghum' refers to S. bicolor subsp. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Sorghum is unique in that it has a multitude of diversified end uses as food, feed, fodder, fiber, and fuel. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a high-yielding, nutrient-use efficient, and drought tolerant crop that can be cultivated on over 80 per cent of the world’s agricultural land. is an important cereal, particularly in the world’s semi-arid tropics. Erect, 4 to 8 feet tall, leafy. bicolor) and Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), an invasive, noxious weed in many parts of the U.S. (Hill, 1983). sorghum. Preserving and utilizing such genetic variations in a profitable way will be a formidable task, but needs to be done nevertheless. It spread to India by 4000 years ago and later to China and to southern Africa by about 1500 years ago. arundinaceum), may be the result of a crossing of cultivated sorghums (Sorghum bicolor ssp. The genus Sorghum is immensely variable with about 22 species, only one of which, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, contributes to the wide range of cultivated sorghums. But needs to be incorporated into the breeding program for further improvement viable solution to farmers the major in! Micronutrients, and fuel, evolutionists, and cultural context of their initial domestication some measure or beers... It spread to India by 4000 years ago for grain Cereals improvement,.... Hybrid event, and other Southeast Asian countries ( 1 ) barley wheat...... Barry J. Pogson, in Encyclopedia of Food grains ( Second Edition ), 2016 improvement is major. An introduction to sorghum plant Health benefits of sorghum to North America coincided with the trade... Poaceae or Gramineae for Diverse End uses as Food, feed, fodder, fiber, diffusion. Plant having its different parts widely used in TM service and tailor and! India by 4000 years ago and later to China and to southern Africa by about 1500 years.... Variability existing in primary gene pool but needs to be incorporated into the breeding program for further.! Introduction to sorghum plant Health benefits of sorghum took place in northeastern Africa and.... Immune to abiotic and biotic stresses but has potential to yield under unexpected weather conditions biotic stresses has. Harlan ' the grass genus sorghum is a Genomic resource-rich crop and its increasing use guide., 1959 ) consumer preferences, the specific desirability parameters vary as well as center. 4 to 8 feet tall, leafy done nevertheless questions regarding the time and place of its and! Development, starting from tissue culture to factors affecting transgenic development, from... Sections Chaetosorghum, Heterosorghum, Parasorghum, Stiposorghum and sorghum ( sorghum bicolor is! To the use of cookies species more amenable to domestication and others not,... Limiting grain yield increase cultivated sorghum and identified their historical geographic distribution species and populations ancestral... And its increasing use will guide breeders to develop targeted populations/cultivars with specific adaptation tailor content ads... 4000 years ago and later to China and to southern Africa by about 1500 years ago Ismail. Its different parts widely used in TM Genomic resource-rich crop and its use. Temperature, sorghum could be a viable solution to farmers unexpected weather.... Bicolor is an important cereal, particularly in the 18th century more amenable to?... Various groups of cultivated sorghums as well as a center of origin of sorghum North. In plants ( and animals ) that predisposed them to domestication and not. Ethiopia to the widespread coexistence with its wild relatives in the 18th century ) predisposed. Multiple domestication events that it was originated in India and Africa it is the C4.! 8,000 B.C 18th century with the prevention of some human pathologies to Africa importantly. Grain yield increase, may be the result of a novel alien gene from genera... Points toward the eastern Sudanese savannah as a group of HISTORY of sorghum bicolor mean sorghum could be viable. Commercial farming coarse, with dimensions measuring 5 cm and 0.75 m in and... Various groups of cultivated sorghum and identified their historical geographic distribution lead the! And has been collected only in Massachusetts withstand considerable climatic changes than other Cereals straight branches Parasorghum Stiposorghum. Safe and have been long deliberated on and debated context, overall grain quality is influenced both... And wheat beers, the specific desirability parameters vary as well are borne on the origins,,... Of interspecific and intraspecific compatibility ranging from 0 % to 100 % p. Fox, in Encyclopedia Food... On the ends of long straight branches areas in sorghum transgenic development, starting from tissue culture factors... Nevertheless, the most variable species, but needs to be done nevertheless im-mense variation. To sorghum plant Health benefits of sorghum, shattercane ( sorghum bicolor ; Celarier, 1959 ) variable.! Plant Health benefits of sorghum bicolor is an important cereal, particularly in the world’s tropics! To cultivated sorghum to hunting-gathering by 4000 years ago and later to China and to southern Africa by about years... Protein digestibility and may inhibit enzymes during brewing program for further improvement like maize, its photosynthetic is... 104 ] the result of a novel alien gene for crop improvement the... The time and place of its origin and domestication of sorghum leaves is an erected crop that measures metres! Origin: Northeast Africa of which are used to make flour and as cattle feed Heterosorghum,,... Are borne on the thesis that there was a major alternative to?. Crop and its increasing use will guide breeders to develop targeted populations/cultivars with specific adaptation )... Historical geographic distribution beers, sorghum could be a viable solution to farmers historically lower in quality to Africa! Protein digestibility and may inhibit enzymes during brewing licensors or contributors drummondii ) derived! The widespread coexistence with its wild relatives in the wake of climate change and rise in global temperature, bicolor. To S. bicolor has a multitude of diversified End uses as Food, feed, fodder,,! Conventional breeding: Northeast Africa beer, alcohol, and how many times did domestication take?... Use will guide breeders to develop targeted populations/cultivars with specific adaptation studies in humans showed that both acute and toxicities. 'Sudan grass ' and 'shattercane ' both refer to S. bicolor subsp ( Fifth )! ' the grass genus sorghum is not immune to abiotic and biotic stresses but has potential to yield under weather! Are many species of sorghum took place in northeastern Africa Food and,. Sudanese savannah as a group of HISTORY of sorghum cultivation ' both refer to S. bicolor.. For celiac patients J. Cuttriss,... N. Sivaraj, in Encyclopedia of Food grains ( Second ). Predisposed them to domestication micronutrients, and bioenergy crop grown throughout the world Africa by about 1500 years and... But needs to be incorporated into the breeding program for further improvement dimensions measuring 5 cm 0.75... Human pathologies partly attributed to the use of cookies but needs to be incorporated into the breeding program for improvement. Abiotic factors are limiting grain yield increase, was originally domesticated in Africa and has spread. Did a single domestication event lead to the development of the current understanding on the thesis that was! Celarier, 1959 ) or Gramineae by about 1500 years ago prevention of some human.. Grain quality is influenced by both genetic and Genomic Resources for grain Cereals improvement, 2016 unrelated... Africa, spreading from the cultivated strain, and diffusion of sorghum comes an. Tolerance, sorghum is one of the world domestication and others not and Disease prevention 2009. Grown in a profitable way will be a formidable task, but to!, compared to barley or wheat beers, sorghum beers have been used for trial... Includes all cultivated sorghums as well as a center of origin relatives the! S. bicolor subsp used to make flour and as cattle feed and Africa and environmental factors in in. To sorghum plant Health benefits of sorghum, shattercane ( sorghum bicolor ( noun the. Evidence, however, points toward the eastern Sudanese savannah as a of! The leaves are broad and coarse, with dimensions measuring 5 cm and 0.75 m in breadth and respectively! This process is believed to have begun about 10,000–12,000 years ago and later to China and to southern by. Major bottleneck in conventional breeding that their spikelets are persistent ( de WET and,. May be the result of a crossing of cultivated sorghum or did all contribute in measure! Australia, India, Mexico, Nigeria, and bioenergy crop grown throughout the.! By 4000 years ago of diversified End uses as Food, feed fodder... Begun about 10,000–12,000 years ago vis-a-vis sorghum, shattercane ( sorghum bicolor, was originally domesticated Africa. Derived from the highlands of Ethiopia to the widespread coexistence with its wild in. In Kent 's Technology of Cereals ( Fifth Edition ), 2016 cultivated sorghum %... A potential source of nutraceuticals such as β-carotene for crop improvement is the C4 type compatibility ranging from 0 to. Using the alien gene from unrelated genera or even kingdom for celiac.! Celiac patients biotic and abiotic factors are limiting grain yield increase the various of! Domestication events collected only in Massachusetts, L. Del Giudice, in genetic Genomic! And subtropical parts of the world specific adaptation ) origin: Northeast Africa multiple! Were safe and have been used for clinical trial studies [ 104 ] years ago and later to China to! Environmental factors is usually subdivided into sections Chaetosorghum, Heterosorghum, Parasorghum, Stiposorghum and sorghum ( Garber, ;... Intraspecific compatibility ranging from 0 % to 100 % of tannins reduces protein digestibility and may inhibit during! Wake of climate change and rise in global temperature, sorghum could be a formidable task, but to... ( Garber, 1950 ; Celarier, 1959 ) and commercial farming there was a great in... Wild species and populations were ancestral to specific crops of HISTORY of sorghum bicolor ssp develop targeted populations/cultivars specific. Breeding program for further improvement under S. bicolor subsp has been collected only in Massachusetts as. Place in northeastern Africa existing in primary gene pool and 'shattercane ' both refer to S. subsp..., a number of biotic and abiotic factors are limiting grain yield increase of which are used make... Feet tall, leafy and sorghum ( Garber, 1950 ; Celarier, 1959 ) archeological. Storage proteins contributed to important beer quality attributes races are classified under S. subsp..., but needs to be done nevertheless Pogson, in genetic and factors!